KShs 0.00

No products in the cart.

FORM THREE HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT NOTES

FORM THREE HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT NOTES

UNIT 1 : EUROPEAN INVASION OF AFRICAN AND THE PROCESS OF COLONIALISATION

Introduction

European invasion and activities began long before 19th due to exploration. The Portuguese, wanted to gain geographical knowledge about the continent led by Portugal’s Kings and Princess like Henry the Navigator.

Trade: They wanted to have a share of Africa’s trade in gold, ivory and slaves so that they could derive revenue.

Religion; They wished to spread Christianity to the non- Christian inhabitants of Africa, and intended to find Prester John, the legendary Abyssinian Christian King of Africa. They hoped that he would help them against the Muslims of North Africa who had dominated the Liberian Peninsula for several centuries.

Technological and Scientific Developments

There was caravels build by Portuguese, Navigators had learnt how to use charts, which indicated harbours along the coastline, and they could note the direction of the winds and currents and used a sophisticated compass marked with 30 points to show direction.

Millitary Strength

They had advanced naval warfare, their guns and cannons were of superior quality this gave them an advantage over the people they came into contact with.

Spirit of Adventure

They were curious to see other lands and people, they came to Africa for the sheer joy of being the first to find and conquer new lands.

Competition to Dominate

This due to a fact that many countries were involved in Africa with varied activities.

THE SCRAMBLE FOR AND POSITION OF AFRICA

The last quarter of the 19th century witnessed on increase in European interest in Africa, by countries like Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Belgium and Portugal were in Africa competing for colonies. They partitioned Africa amongst themselves after convening the Berlin inference of 1884 – 1885.

The Berlin conference was convened by other van Bismarck, the German, and Chancellor, to avoid involving his country in quarrels with other states over African colonies.

During the scramble for a partition of the continent, the Europeans adopted carrot and stick methods to acquire as many colonies as possible for themselves. This involved persuading Africans to collaborate by offering them a rewards or a punishment if they did not cooperate.

This elicited different renotions from Africans, must communities resisted, while only a few collaborated. Despite their resistance, most African societies except Liberia and Ethiopia had been colonized by 1914.

Defining Scramble and partition.

Scramble means to rush for, compete or struggle with others in order to get or do something. The scramble for Africa refers to the rush and struggle for different parts of Africa by Europeans powers.

To partition is to divide something among people, or to apportion something among contenders or competitors. The partition of Africa refers to the dividing up or sharing of Africa by European nations.

METHODS USED BY EUROPEAN TO ACQUIRE COLONIES IN AFRICA

European powers agreed to validate their claims on any part of Africa by informating others.  The powers used different methods to acquire colonies in Africa, like individual European nationals with direct or indirect support form their mother countires made claims for their countries. Despite the occasional compliets, these claims were settled and specific countries recognized as being effective occupants of a declared sphere of influence.

Diplomacy they established diplomatic relations with African leaders like those of the tribal in Nigeria and eventually occupied their lands.

Treaty signing.There was two types of treaties, that is, trieties between Africans and Europeans on the one hend and those between the Europena powers themselves. Most of the treaties signed after 1885 were protection treaties between African rulers and representatives of European governments and private organsiation. Once these treaties were accepted by the home government, the arms become a protectoreate of that particular European power.

During the partition, some European states dashed in areas where they had common interest, in cases where spheres of influence were contested, the European countries involved settled their disputes through mutual agreements. Such agreements were called partition treaties like Anglo-German agreements of 1886 – 1890.

Luring Of Chiefs

They gave presents of cloth, beads, tools, weapons and even intoxicating drinks for example, the Baganda and Lozi. There chiefs were cheated through such gifts and ended up losing their independence.

Divide and Rule. They instigated war between different societies by playing off one society against another. After such societies had fought and were weekend, the Europeans stopped in and occupied their land like Baganda and Banyoro.

Military Conquests

Whenever treaty making failed they used military conquest. The French in particular favoured this methodian West Africa and also the British used it in conquest of Asante.

Factors that had to be scramble for Africa

The main causes of the scramble for Africa were a combination of political economic and social factors.

Bismark and the rise of Geography

In 1870, France and provision fought in Europe in the France – president war, and France was defeated. This resulted in the completion of the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire by the Treaty of Frankfourt. The French lost Alsace and Louranine region an area rich in coal and iron.

Otto van Bismark, the former chief Minister of Prussia became the German Chancellor. The rise of Germany altered the balance of power in Europe because she became the most powerful state in place of France. He encouraged France to seek for colonies in Africa as compensation and consultation for her losses in Europe and Africa, his activities, they partly caused his scramble.

Industrialization in Europe

Britain was the 1st European state to industrialize, followed by Belgium and Belgin and France. At 1st, markets for manufactured goods and sources of raw materials were readily available. But when other European countries became industrialized, there was a lot of competition and protectionism. European powers that relied on reports made by their explorer and travelers in Africa turned to Africa for markets for their manufactured goods and sources of raw materials.

Europe Rivalry

European merchants in Africa asked for perfections from their mother countries whenever they faced competition either from African merchants or those of other European, suspected mineral wealth also led to the scramble for colonies in Africa. The competition and rivalry of the European powers led to the scramble for colonies.

They Egyptian Question

Modern European involvement in Egypt bean with Nepolc’ans Egyptian campaign of 1798 which led to construction of such canal in 1859 – 1869. This canal was strategic importance to Britain because of her economic links with India.

From 1863 to 1879, Egypt was ruled by Khedive Ismail. He had great aims for the modernization of Egypt but had no money. It is reliance on foreign loans and his extravagance led to Egypt’s bankruptcy and the sale of her shark in the canal to the British. British and French intervened in Egypt’s finances to that she might be able to pay her debts. Khedive Ismail clashed with these commissioners and dismissed them. Consequently, the European powers put pressure on the Sultan of Turkey to overthrow Ismail, who was accordingly deposed in 1879, Ismail was succeeded by his son, Tawfiq who was just but a puppel of the Europeans.

The British and Franch dual control of Egypt caused a nationalist uprising in 1880. It was led by colonial Ahmed Urabi Pasha. The British supposed this revolt and later defeated the Egyptians at the battle of Tel-el –Kabir and occupied the country in 1882. The Britain occupation of Egypt offended the French, who planned to occupy other territories in Africa.

The French Activities in West Africa and Congo

The French established a protectorate over Porto Novel in 1882 and made plans for the occupation of more territories in the region. These plans worried the British traders already stationed in West Africa. Even Germanys which had kept a lot changed her mind concerning the acquisition of territories in Africa; she joined the race for colonies and later occupied Togo, Cameroon, South – West Africa and Tanganyika.

Savergan de Brazza, an Italian adventurer in the service of Franco, obtained treaties from the Congolese King, Mokoko, dated September/October 1880. In 1882, the French government accepted those treaties as valid documents. Thereafter French activities intensified the scramble for colonies in Africa.

UNIT-2-ESTABLISHMENT-OF-COLONIAL-RULE-IN-KENYA.pdf

UNIT 3 COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION

UNIT 4 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD IN KENYA

UNIT 5 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE IN KENYA (1919 – 1963)

UNIT 6 RISE OF AFRICAN NATIONALISM

UNIT 7 LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS.

UNIT 8 THE FORMATION STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE GOVENREMTN OF KENYA. COMPLETE NOTES F3 ALL

UNIT 1 EUROPEAN INVASION OF AFRICAN AND THE PROCESS OF COLONIALISATION

MWALIMU PLUS ALL MENUS WITH FREE RESOURSES

ALL SECONDARY NOTES ALLSUBJECTS FREE DOWNLOAD

ALL FORM 1-4 SECONDARY EXAMINATIONS FREE DOWNLOAD

ALL KCSE MOCKS EXAMINATIONS FREE DOWNLOAD NOW

ALL K.C.S.E PAST PAPERS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

ALL PRIMARY RESOURSES FREE DOWNLOAD HERE

ALL FREE DOWNLOAD MATERIALS AVAILABLE FREE

ALL TOPICAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ALL SUBJECTS

ALL TSC VACANCIES AND DAILY TEACHERS BOM JOBS

ALL UPDATED NEWS TEACHERS NEWS DAILY

ALL SECONDARY SCHEMES OF WORK FREE DOWNLOAD

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM FOR MORE RESOURCES

Share this article

Our bestsellers

Sale!

GRADE 8 MTP SOCIAL STUDIES SCHEMES OF WORK-TERM 2

Original price was: KShs 120.00.Current price is: KShs 100.00.
Sale!

GRADE 8 PRE-TECHNICAL STUDIES SCHEMES OF WORK-TERM 2

Original price was: KShs 120.00.Current price is: KShs 100.00.
Sale!

GRADE 8 KLB TOP SCHOLAR MATHEMATICS SCHEMES OF WORK-TERM 2

Original price was: KShs 120.00.Current price is: KShs 100.00.
Sale!

GRADE 8 OXFORD KISWAHILI SCHEMES OF WORK-TERM 2

Original price was: KShs 120.00.Current price is: KShs 100.00.
Sale!

GRADE 8 KLB TOP SCHOLAR KISWAHILI SCHEMES OF WORK-TERM 2

Original price was: KShs 120.00.Current price is: KShs 100.00.
Sale!

GRADE 8 MENTOR INTEGRATED SCIENCE SCHEMES OF WORK-TERM 2

Original price was: KShs 120.00.Current price is: KShs 100.00.

Related articles

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

No posts to display

Recent blog posts